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Sleep Deprivation Spurs Hunger 睡眠不足VS饥饿

WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2011 — Sleep deprivation can leave you feeling drowsy and slow-witted, but that’s not all: New research suggests it may also rev up your appetite.
2011年3月23日,星期三—睡眠不 足会让你感到昏昏欲睡和反应迟钝,但是这 不全是它的反应:新的研 究认为它也可能增加你的食欲。

After sleeping for only four hours, people tend to eat more calories on the following day than when they get a good night’s sleep, the study found. This was especially true of women, who consumed an average of 329 more calories when sleep deprived than when well rested. By contrast, men consumed just 263 more.
研究显示:睡了仅仅4小时以 后与他们一夜好眠相比,人们趋 向于在第二天吃更多的卡路里。这一点 对于女人来说更正确,她们缺 少睡眠所摄入的卡路里要比很好的休息平均多消耗329卡路里。相反,男人仅仅多消耗263卡路里。

These findings may explain the link between insufficient sleep and overweight that has been shown in previous studies, says the lead researcher, Marie-Pierre St. Onge, Ph.D., a research associate at Columbia University’s New York Obesity Research Center. “This study shows a possible causative effect,” she says.
这些发 现可以解释睡眠不充足和超重之间了联系,这种联 系已经在以前的研究中显示了,首席研究员Marie-Pierre St.Onge博士说,她是哥 伦比亚大学纽约肥胖研究中心的助理研究员。“这个研 究显示出了一种肥胖的可能诱发效果,”她说。

Overweight people often have sleep problems—most notably sleep apnea, a breathing disorder that causes frequent awakenings—but it’s not clear if they’re overweight because of their sleep problems, or if their sleep problems result from being overweight.
超重的 人经常有睡眠问题——大多数 具有显著的睡眠呼吸停止,它是一 种由经常性觉醒引起的呼吸紊乱症——但是是 失眠导致超重还是超重导致失眠,这是不清楚的。

St. Onge’s study may be a step toward answering that “chicken-or-the-egg question” because it included only people of normal weight and therefore eliminated the influence of existing overweight or obesity, says Gina Lundberg, M.D., a clinical assistant professor of cardiology at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta.
St.Onge的研究可能朝“先有鸡 还是先有蛋的问题”的答案迈进了一步,因为它 仅仅包含了标准体重的人,由此消 除了目前超重和肥胖的影响,医学博士Gina Lundberg说,她是亚 特兰大艾莫利大学医学院心脏病临床助理教授。

However, Lundberg cautions that the study’s small size makes it impossible to draw any firm conclusions. (She was not involved in the research.)
然而,Lundberg注意到 这项研究的小尺寸使得它不可能得出任何确切的结论。(她并没 有参与这项研究。)

The study, which was presented today at an American Heart Association conference in Atlanta, included 13 male and 13 female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 45, all of whom were healthy sleepers of normal weight. Each of the participants spent two six-day stints under close supervision in a sleep lab. During the first stint they could sleep up to nine hours per night, and during the other they were restricted to just four hours. They were not allowed to leave the lab, nor were they allowed to nap.
这项研 究是在今天亚特兰大的的一个美国心脏病协会的会议上展示的,它包括年龄在30到45岁之间的男女各13位的志愿者,他们都 是标准体重的健康睡眠者。每个参 与者都在一个睡眠实验室里被严密的监视了6天,在第一次的闭关中,他们每晚能够睡9个小时,在另一次的闭关中,他们每 晚仅仅局限于睡4个小时。他们既 不允许离开实验室也不允许打盹儿。

For the first four days of the study, they all ate a fixed diet of cereal and milk in the morning and frozen entrées for lunch and dinner. Then, on the last two days of the study, they could choose what they ate. They were given an allowance and taken shopping, the only restriction being that they had to buy food with clearly marked nutritional content so the researchers could properly measure it.
在这项研究的前四天,他们早 餐全部吃了麦片和牛奶的混合饮食,午餐和 晚餐全部吃的是冷冻主菜。然后,在这项 研究的最后两天里,他们可 以选择他们吃什么。他们获 得了一些零用钱和进行了购物,唯一的 限制是他们不得不买那些显著标明营养含量的食物,以至于 研究者可以适当的估测它。

In addition to consuming more calories, the volunteers seemed to gravitate to high-fat, high-protein foods when sleep deprived. “Ice cream was a favorite,” St. Onge says.
当缺乏睡眠的时候,为了消 耗更多的卡路里,志愿者 好像趋向于购买高脂肪和高蛋白的食物。“冰激凌 是一种很好的食物,”St.Onge说。

Both men and women ate more protein-rich foods on short sleep, but only women ate more fat. While men ate the same amount of fat no matter how much sleep they got, the women averaged 31 more grams of fat after sleeping for four hours.
在睡眠很少的情况下,男人和 女人都会吃更多的食物,但是仅 仅女人吃更多的脂肪。无论男人睡多少的觉,男人都 是吃同样数量的的脂肪,女人睡四个小时以后,女人平均增长31克。

The sleep-deprived participants may simply have been looking for a quick source of energy to perk themselves up, St. Onge says, but it could also be that lack of sleep impairs the ability to make healthy food choices.
缺少睡 眠的参与者可能仅仅是找到了一种快速得到能量的来源来使自己振作,St.Onge说,但是它 也可能是睡眠不足也减弱了选择健康食品的能力。

“It has an impact on cognitive restraint,” she says. “High-fat food is tempting, and maybe on short sleep you can’t restrain yourself as well, while on full sleep you can resist more easily.”
“它对一 个人的自身认知克制力是一种冲击,”她说,“高脂肪 的食物具有引诱力,在短期 睡眠的时候你可能不会克制自己,然而当 你具有充足的睡眠的时候,你将可 以更容易的克制它”

The lack of restraint displayed by the sleep-deprived volunteers could have unhealthy consequences over the long term, Lundberg says. Regularly eating an extra 300 calories a day would add up to about 30 pounds of weight gain over the course of a year, increasing the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses associated with overweight and obesity, she says.
通过睡 眠不足的志愿者可以看出,长期的 自我约束力的缺乏会导致一个不健康的后果,Lundberg说,每天定 期的摄入额外的300卡路里的能量,在一年 的时间里将增加大约30磅的体重,从而将 会有引发与朝中和肥胖有关的心脏病、糖尿病 和其他慢性病的危险,她说。

The study offers “one more data point that sleep-deprived people have more weight issues,” Lundberg adds. “And if we understand the problem better, we’ll be better able to fix the problem.”
研究提出“更多的 数据显示了睡眠不足的人更有体重的问题,”Lundberg增加说。“假如我 们更多的了解这个问题,那么我 们将会更好的解决这个问题。”

St. Onge’s study was presented at the American Heart Association’s annual conference on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Unlike the studies published in medical journals, the research presented at the meeting has not been thoroughly vetted by other experts in the field.
St.Onge的研究 在美国心脏病协会关于营养生理活动和新陈代谢的年会上展示。不像在 医学杂志上公布的研究,在会上,这次研 究没有被这一领域的专家彻底审查。


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